I’m going to start this politically, but I promise it’ll get to software development. The trigger for this scribbling of thoughts was an article discussing the under-funding of many areas of the public sector and the quote from the finance spokesperson for New Zealand’s recently-ousted opposition party: “… the government should be thanking [the] National [party] for inheriting such a strong economy.” And it struck me that economic performance was the sole benchmark by which they gauged success. In reality, the country is vastly more complex than one set of economic indicators, and different people have very different perspectives on what constitutes success.
The ‘duh’ disclaimer
As I’ve said in some previous articles, none of this will be new to anyone who has spent, studied, or even thought about management. And it certainly isn’t the first time I’ve thought about it, but the above article engaged some dormant mental spirit to write things down 🙂
You are what you measure
Different people’s values mean that what they consider important and unimportant will vary and that is fine and healthy. The challenges with measurement are the consequences of measuring and how people’s behavior changes in response to the measure.
To take a non-software example, the New Zealand education system places strong emphasis on success at NCEA achievement, which has translated into students being encouraged to take easier courses or teachers being encourage to teach towards the tests. In this case the goal of giving students the best high school education has been subverted by a measurement which effectively demands certain pass rates.
The classic example in software development is measuring lines of code. Lines of code is a basic metric for measuring the overall size and therefore likely cost of learning and maintaining a code base. It is an appalling measure of programmer productivity: good programmers will write less code through reuse; refactoring may end up removing code altogether; and on the other hand, readability is far more important than concision.
Thankfully I believe the industry is well past measuring productivity by LoC, or even the highly amorphous function points. However the beast is far from slain, for instead we have story points and velocity.
Agile Software Development
Agile Software Development, according to Dave Thomas, author of The Pragmatic Programmer and co-author of The Manifesto for Agile Software Development, can be summarized by this process:
- find out where you are
- take a small step towards your goal
- adjust your understanding based on what you’ve learned
And when faced with alternatives that deliver similar value, take the path that makes future changes easier.
This is very idealistic and quickly crashes into commercial reality where managers, usually on behalf of customers, want to know: when will it be ‘done’ and what will it cost? Of course, this ignores all the benefits of learning-as-we-go, Lean style (which is essentially the same thing as agile software development but applied to business), and that you get much better, albeit far less predictable-at-the-outset, outcomes than any upfront planning based process. But we can’t really ask everyone to be rational can we?
Nevertheless, marketing release dates and the like meant we had to invent ways to measure progress and estimate ‘completion’ (I keep using inverted commas because I think we all know that done or complete are very subjective terms). And so Agile (sorry Dave T, I’m going to be using it as a noun) planning evolved from concepts of managing risk and uncertainty via loose estimation in Agile Estimating and Planning to full blown methodologies that are so militaristic they require specialized commanders like Scrum Masters.
A plague of story points
And here’s where I feel agile software development goes wrong. The people involved are so invested in the process they forget the actual goals of their organization or of agile software development. Having the ‘right’ ceremonies and getting the points right become the focus. More significantly, people become concerned with the consequences of their measurement, so they will avoid having a high-scoring sprint because it’ll increase expectations on their future performance (and by this stage the team probably isn’t feeling all that empowered, but that’s another story).
So now the process is about having accurate estimates, and consistent or slightly growing measurements, regardless of the impact on the delivered product. Because although it might be possible to explain to your manager that your productivity (as measured by story points) has bombed in the last month because you decided to refactor X in order to speed up lots of expected future work, by the time it’s aggregated to their manager and so on, that nuance is lost. And now that manager is getting shafted based on that measurement which doesn’t actually reflect whether or not your team is doing a good job.
My favorite Agile
The first time I ‘did agile’ was almost by accident. We had a three person development team working on a product and a product manager who had a three page Word table with a prioritized list of well broken-down features. And every fortnight, we wrote down on a whiteboard what, from the list, each of us was going to work on and how many days we thought it would take. If something needed re-prioritized the product manager would come in (any time) and we’d change what we were doing and update the whiteboard.
The point is that we were focused on delivering the outcomes that the business wanted almost as soon as it knew it wanted them. Sometimes we’d be asked to have a bit of a guess at how long half a page of priorities might take, leading to a 6-8 week kind of estimate. But all parties also understood that estimates were exactly that and things might change, both in terms of time taken, and in terms of what was critical to get done. Unfortunately I don’t believe this approach really scales, and it requires serious buy-in from stakeholders (despite all the evidence of the value of Agile/Lean approaches).
As is normal for these drawn out discussion posts, I can’t conclude with ‘the answer’ – and there are a lot of people out there who’ve spent a lot of time trying to find ‘the answer’ and haven’t found one.
What I am confident of is that measurements can’t show nuance and they subvert the behavior of what they intend to measure. So it’s incredibly important to continually reflect on whether your measurements, and their driving processes, are serving you well or whether people are now just optimizing for that measurement at the expense of actually achieving things.
I understand that an organization needs to gauge how it’s performing – whether it can be more productive, achieve different goals, eliminate waste. To do this it needs concise explanations of whether it is meeting relevant sub-goals. But the consequence of this concision is a loss of nuance that sands off the random edges that create effectiveness.