.NET Core Secrets

Securing sensitive configuration information is one of those things that we know as developers is important, but so often gets deferred for more pressing commercial concerns, usually because of our confidence in the security infrastructure of our environments e.g. firewalls, VPNs. However in the field I’m heading into, security of personal information is important and expected to be audited, so with that commercial consideration in mind today I decided to tackle the challenge of securing configuration.

Secret Manager

There is a lot of chatter around the .NET Core Secret Manager but there appears to be two problems with it. Firstly, it is not a trusted store: “The Secret Manager tool does not encrypt the stored secrets and should not be treated as a trusted store. It is for development purposes only. The keys and values are stored in a JSON configuration file in the user profile directory.”. Secondly, and more significantly I believe, it is user specific. That means that each user has their own credentials.

When I set up a development environment for a team I want it to be as uniform as possible for the whole team. A uniform environment makes it easier for team members to help each other, and makes it easier to script tools for automation. And many development resources will be shared, such as an AWS test instance.

Finally, this doesn’t help with production. For production the above website suggests using environment variables. Such variables are almost certainly stored in plaintext somewhere – in my case in Elastic Beanstalk configurations. Storing in plain-text is insecure and if nothing else is going to be a black mark on a security audit.

Extending .NET Core Configuration

What I want is sensitive information to be stored in an encrypted file where the encrypted file and the key are stored separately i.e. at least one of those is not checked into the source repository. I also still want to have different configurations available for different environments. It is also important that the file is relatively easy to modify.

What I propose is a custom configuration provider that is inserted into the ConfigurationBuilder which processes the other settings file when it is instantiated. The concept is outlined in this extension method:

public static IConfigurationBuilder AddEncryptedAndJsonFiles(this IConfigurationBuilder builder, string fileName, string basePath, bool optional, bool reloadOnChange = false)
    string jsonFilePath = builder.GetFileProvider().GetFileInfo(fileName).PhysicalPath;
    var encryptedConfiguration = new EncryptedConfigurationSource(jsonFilePath, basePath);

    return builder
        .AddJsonFile(fileName, optional, reloadOnChange)

UpdateStoredSettings() will look through the appsettings file for keys starting with SENSITIVE_name. It will then add the name and corresponding value to the encrypted file and remove it from the appsettings file. The ConfigurationProvider returned by the IConfigurationSource.Build method will read the encrypted file and return a data dictionary of keys and values. The location of the key file will be set in the appsettings and read by both the source method and provider.

The extension method above will allow a simple replacement of AddJsonFile with AddEncryptedAndJsonFiles leaving Startup like this:

var builder = new ConfigurationBuilder()
    .AddEncryptedAndJsonFiles("appsettings.json", configBasePath, optional: true, reloadOnChange: true)
    .AddEncryptedAndJsonFiles($"appsettings.{env.EnvironmentName}.json", configBasePath, optional: true)
Configuration = builder.Build();


The implementation requires three classes as is standard for configuration providers:

  • a ConfigurationProvider which writes the properties into the dictionary used by consumers of configuration;
  • an IConfigurationSource which is the factory for ConfigurationProvider and where I opted to put the pre-processing method; and
  • an extension method for convenience.

The implementation uses AES for encryption. I considered deliberately using a slower method, but had trouble finding documentation and examples specific to .NET Core for symmetric encryption (as opposed to password hashing which is where those algorithms tend to be used).

Unlike the appsettings.json, the encrypted settings are stored in a single flat object, with the key being that used for configuration lookups e.g. configuration["parent:child"]. If a matching setting is found then it will overwrite the old one, allowing settings to be repeatedly updated.

One delightful problem I had was that the default IFileProvider refused to resolve paths above the base path, making it impossible to use for a relative path pointing outside the repository. As a result I had to pass in the base path, which feels like something of a hack.

A gist with the full source code can be found here